北京上海网约车市场对外地司机关闭大门|亚冠下注APP官网

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BEIJING —Fresh from school with a degree in hotel management, Luo Haichao left his hometown and moved to Beijing to look for a bigger paycheck. 北京——从学校毕业旋即,获得了酒店管理学位的雒海超离开了家乡,来北京找寻更高的工资。He eventually found one in a different sector: driving cars. 他最后在另一个行业寻找了一个工作:当司机。

China has created its own local versions of Uber and Lyft, and the ride-hailing business is booming.中国早已有了本国版本的Uber和Lyft,网约车业务正在蓬勃发展。But now Mr Luo — and potentially tens of thousands of other drivers — will have to get off the road.但现在,雒海超将被迫暂停工作,还有成千上万的其他司机也有可能面对这个前景。Citing safety and other issues, the cities of Beijing and Shanghai said on Wednesday that Chinese ride-hailing companies must stop using out-of-town drivers like Mr Luo and hire only local residents to sit behind the wheel.周三,北京和上海这两个城市以安全性和其他问题为由宣告,在国内经营网约车业务的公司必需停止使用像雒海超这样的外地司机,不能雇佣当地居民来驾车。

It makes me feel sad, said Mr Luo, 29, who works for the ride-hailing companies Didi Chuxing and Yidao Yongche and had just spent about $36,000 on a new Volkswagen Passat to give his passengers a more reliable ride. 这让我深感伤心,29岁的雒海超说道,他为网约车公司滴滴上下班和易到用车工作,为了让自己的乘客能更加可信地乘车,他刚刚花上25万元买了一辆新的大众帕萨特。Without people who come from the outside, Beijing wouldn’t have developed so fast.没外地人,北京会发展得这么慢。

The new rules could deal a significant blow to Didi Chuxing, China’s ride-hailing giant, and smaller rivals that must now find new — and probably more expensive — drivers in two major markets. 新规则可能会给中国仅次于的网约车公司滴滴上下班及其更加小的竞争对手导致根本性压制,这些公司现在必需在这两个主要市场找寻新的司机,而且或许要代价更高的工资。Didi Chuxing had just defeated Uber in an expensive battle for dominance in the world’s largest ride-hailing market, and it enjoys such a high global profile that it counts Apple and other big names among its investors.滴滴上下班为了在这个世界上仅次于的网约车市场中占有主导地位,刚刚在一场代价便宜的竞争中打败了Uber。 滴滴在全球拥有如此低的名声,以至于其投资者中有还包括苹果(Apple)这样的大牌公司。

In a statement, Didi said the rules represented a significant step toward a more sensible and liberal framework, and were less limiting on pricing, cars and driver restrictions than earlier drafts. 滴滴在一份声明中说道,这些规则代表了向着严格和更加合理的方向做到了改动,在定价、汽车和驾驶员方面的容许比以前草案版本中的要少。A spokeswoman declined to comment on how the Beijing and Shanghai residency requirements for drivers would affect its business.公司发言人对北京和上海有关司机户籍的拒绝不会如何影响公司业务拒绝接受公开发表评论。

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China’s technology boom has put the country on the innovation map and transformed the lives of many of its nearly 1.4 billion people. 中国技术行业的蓬勃发展已让该国在创意领域占据一席之地,转变了中国近14亿人口中许多人的生活。But even the new parts of the Chinese economy depend in part on the same old fuel that powered the country’s rise for decades: cheap labor from the countryside.但是,即使在中国经济的新领域,也部分地依赖几十年来驱动经济发展的旧要素:来自农村的廉价劳动力。Those workers — now totaling nearly 280 million, including Mr Luo — leave their farms, villages and smaller cities to seek factory jobs and better lives in the big cities. 这种劳动力目前的总人数已近2.8亿,其中还包括雒海超,他们从农场、农村和小城镇回头出来,到大城市找寻工厂的工作和更佳的生活。

Their hands, low wages and willingness to work helped make China the world’s factory floor.他们的劳动、低工资和什么活都不愿腊的态度协助中国沦为世界工厂。Increasingly, many of those workers do the grunt work behind China’s internet success stories. 这些工人于是以更加多地腊着中国互联网顺利案例背后的苦活。

They drive cars for Didi Chuxing and Yidao Yongche, deliver packages for Alibaba Group and JD.com, and fetch takeout meals for Koubei and Eleme. 他们为滴滴和易到驾车,为阿里巴巴和京东(JD.com)投递包覆,也为口碑和吃饱了么送来店内餐。Without them, China’s thriving e-commerce industry could take a significant hit.没他们,中国蓬勃发展的电子商务行业可能会受到根本性压制。

But the new ride-share regulations show that the technology industry in China is coming up against long-held concerns in the country about overcrowding, a widening wealth gap and access to education, health care and other services.但是,新的网约车规则指出,中国的技术行业于是以面对着人们长期以来的忧虑,还包括人口过多、贫富差距不断扩大,以及外来人口取得教育、医疗保健及其他服务的问题。At the bottom of the conflict is tension between powerful vested interests and a new rising class, said Hu Xingdou, an economics professor at the Beijing Institute of Technology. 北京理工大学经济学教授胡兴东说道:对立的显然是强劲的既得利益与下降的新兴阶层之间的紧绷关系。

The political power of China’s taxi services — which see ride-hailing companies as dangerous rivals — presents a particularly strong challenge, he said.他说道,中国出租车行业的政治力量是一个特别是在强劲的挑战,出租车公司把网约车公司视作危险性的竞争对手。It is not clear how many drivers would be affected, but the numbers could be significant. 目前还不确切将有多少司机不会不受影响,但人数可能会不少。In Shanghai, for instance, fewer than 10,000 of the 410,000 active drivers registered to Didi Chuxing have permanent residency papers, according to Didi. 例如,根据滴滴的数据,在滴滴上海登记的41万名活跃司机中,只有将近1万享有本地户籍。Also on Wednesday, the southern boomtown of Guangzhou joined cities that had previously instituted less-restrictive residency requirements. 同在周三,南方兴旺城市广州则重新加入到了户籍拒绝不那么严苛的城市的行列之中。

In its statement, Didi said the city of Beijing had given it five months to implement the rules.滴滴在其声明中说道,北京市给公司五个月的时间来实行规则。Officials in Beijing did not respond to requests for comment. 北京的官员没对此置评催促。But they were quoted by local news outlets citing safety concerns and a need to track drivers, as in the case a year ago, when a 28-year-old Beijing ride-share driver made headlines when he punched a drunk passenger, breaking an eye socket. 但当地新闻媒体提到官员的话说道,主要是出于安全性考虑到,以及能追踪司机的必须,比如一年前再次发生过这样的新闻,北京一名28岁的网约车司机动手打了一名醉酒乘客,将其眼眶超越。The officials were also mentioned as citing local regulations already in place that require taxi drivers to be residents of the city where they work.新闻报道还提及,官员称现有地方法规早已拒绝出租车司机在他们工作的城市有户籍。

At issue is China’s unique household registration — or hukou — system, which was intended to keep rural workers from flooding into more populous regions. 问题的关键是中国独有的户籍制度,又称户口,其目的是避免外来民工涌进人口更加密集的地区。The larger cities, like Beijing and Shanghai, need a steady influx of people like Mr Luo to function.北京和上海这样的大城市必须有像雒海超这样的源源不断的劳动力。But residents or officials often push back, worried that migrants could swamp schools, hospitals and other services. 但这些城市的居民或官员经常产生声浪,担忧农民工可能会让学校、医院和其他服务应接不暇。

Chinese cities have long struggled with how to square the need for migrant labor with the hukou system, and the country is slowly moving toward making it easier for migrants to establish residency.中国城市长期以来仍然没能解决问题户籍制度与外来劳动力市场需求之间的对立,现在中国正在慢慢地向让外来者更容易获得户口的方向发展。The ride-hailing business poses especially tricky concerns for local governments. 网约车服务业给地方政府带给了尤其棘手的问题。Taxi drivers, who are required to be local residents, feel threatened and have flexed their political muscle. 出租车司机必须有当地户口,这些司机感觉受到威胁,并开始动用他们的政治力量。

In some cities, taxi drivers have gone on strike, sometimes harassing ride-share drivers.有些城市的出租车司机采行了大罢工行动,有时还侵扰网约车司机。That has discouraged some ride-share drivers. 这让一些网约车司机深感鼓起。There are fewer and fewer rewards, said Wen Zhenjiang, 37, who worked for Didi and Uber in Beijing for nearly two years and is now looking for work driving trucks.37岁的温振江曾在北京为滴滴和Uber工作了近两年,目前正在找寻驾驶员卡车的工作,他说道,(进网约车)的报酬已越来越少。

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There are other reasons to leave. 也有人因为其他原因离开了网约车行业。Driving full-time often means 14- to 15-hour shifts each day, sometimes overnight if there is strong demand. 全职驾车经常意味著每天工作14到15个小时,如果市场需求尤其强大,有时还必须在夜间工作。Most drivers rent vehicles, but some — like Mr Luo — bought their own after they started to make good money. 大多数司机用出租车,但也有些人,比如雒海超,在他们开始赚后买了自己的车。

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To save on rent, many share apartments in the suburbs.为了节省房租,许多人在郊区合租公寓。Their employers don’t keep tabs on how often the drivers work or require them to reach driving quotas. 网约车司机的雇员不管司机工作多长时间,或者对他们有工作的配额拒绝。

However, if they get bad ratings from passengers, they risk losing bonus payments.但是,如果乘客给他们的评分不低的话,他们就有可能丧失奖金。Still, the rewards of getting into the ride-hailing business are clear: Mr Luo has occasionally earned about $4,350 in a month, or three times more than the average Beijing office worker.尽管如此,专门从事网约车服务者获得的报酬很显著:雒海超有时一个月能挣到3万元,比北京一般上班族花钱的高三倍多。On Wednesday, online groups devoted to ride-share drivers were filled with messages of anger and disappointment. 周三,以网约车司机居多的在线社区充满著了气愤和沮丧的帖子。

Many said they would return to driving illegal taxis. 许多人说道,他们不会重回驾驶员非法出租车的工作。That will probably make me more money, wrote a driver named Xiaowei. 一个名为小伟的司机写到,那可能会让我挣到更好的钱。Another, named Canyue, said, Whatever the rule is, I will keep driving as long as I can still tap ‘start a service’ on my app.另一个名为残月的人说道,无论有什么规则,只要我还能在app上页面‘启动服务’,我就要之后驾车。

Mr Luo has a lot at stake. 新规则对雒海超有相当大的利害关系。He is married and has an apartment and a mortgage back home in Chengde County in Hebei Province. 他已成婚,在河北省承德县有一套公寓,必须缴纳抵押贷款。

His living is a good one for someone with a rural hukou. 他目前的生活对有农村户口的人来说已很不俗。He is still making monthly payments equal to about $290 on his car and paying the same amount on his mortgage.他仍在缴纳每月大约2000元的车贷和某种程度数额的房贷。This is unfair to people from outside Beijing, he said.这对北京以外的人不公平,他说道。

But his days in the business are probably numbered, he said on Wednesday. 但他在周三说道,他当网约车司机的日子有可能不多了。If it isn’t allowed, I will stop driving, he said. 他说道,如果不想我腊了,我将仍然驾车。What can I do? I can’t put all my eggs in one basket.我能干什么呢?我总无法把所有的鸡蛋都放到一个篮子里吧。

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